Search by tag «Genetics» 10 results
As a central component of the human immune system, mononuclear phagocytes defend the body by absorbing bacteria, viruses, and dead or damaged cells, thus fighting off infections and helping build immunity. Researchers from ITMO University, together with their colleagues from the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen), have devised a specialized resource to study mononuclear phagocytes and a novel method for gene expression analysis. Featured in Cell Reports, the results of their work may potentially break the ground for new ways to treat metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer.
Evolution Responsible? ITMO Researchers Identify Evolutionary Adaptations Connected To Autoimmune Diseases and Allergies
Every year, the number of diagnosed autoimmune diseases grows by 3-9%. These conditions are greatly influenced by genetic factors, however these still remain to be studies on the molecular level. Researchers from ITMO and their Estonian collaborators used bioinformatics to analyze the human genome, bringing the field one step closer to mapping the molecular changes in the genome that have an effect on autoimmune diseases and allergies. In the future, this will pave the way for novel, more efficient treatment for these conditions. This resulting article was published in Nature Communications.
Advanced materials, new Master’s programs, and exciting job prospects for researchers: with another two weeks behind us, it’s time for another digest of the latest science news from ITMO University. Let’s dig in!
For several years Bayazit Yunusbayev had been studying the mechanisms behind the autoimmune and allergic diseases at the University of Tartu (Estonia), and last year he joined ITMO’s SCAMT Institute, where he heads the Evolutionary Biomedicine group, to continue with his research. Bayazit Yunusbayev came to the university as part of the ITMO Fellowship & Professorship program that allows researchers to work at the university for several years. Read on to learn more about gene mutations responsible for immune system adaptation and discover other areas studied by the lab.
Researchers from ITMO’s Laboratory of Genomic Diversity and the World-Class Research Centre for Personalized Medicine have developed GPrior (gene prioritizer), an algorithm that uses data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify the genes responsible for a particular disease. For this study, the group used the data on schizophrenia, coronary heart disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases to test the algorithm. Read on to learn more about GPrior’s development and prospects.
Ekaterina Noskova, an employee at ITMO’s Laboratory of Genomic Diversity and International Laboratory for Computer Technologies, received a grant from the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) and Philip Morris International.
We know that the domestic cat has distant relatives that roam the earth – lions, tigers, cheetahs, and mountain lions. Less familiar are the 38 distinct species in the family Felidae, many with strange names like Pampas cat, kodkod and rusty-spotted cat. The new field of genomics – which engages in the unravelling of DNA genomes of separate species – is resolving old conundrums and revealing new secrets across the history of evolutionarily related species among cats, dogs, bears, and ourselves. Recently, an international research team that includes genetic researchers from ITMO University has completed a study that revealed several fascinating facts about the Chinese mountain cat. The paper on the study was published in Science Advances.
In 2020, ITMO University has launched the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity under the academic supervision of the renowned American scientist Stephen J. O’Brien. This new department is to become an important Russian center of bioinformatics, where scientists will work on collecting genomes of different living organisms and studying genetic diversity of animals and people. This work should help in fighting many diseases while also providing a better understanding of the ways in which biodiversity changes on our planet. ITMO.NEWS met with the coordinators of this emerging laboratory and learned what research they plan to do in the near future.
ITMO Scientists Develop an Algorithm That Makes the Inference of Population History Models for People and Animals Easier and More Accurate
Bioinformatics scientists from ITMO University have developed a software tool, which quickly and effectively analyses genome data to infer probable models of demographic history of specific species, such as plants, animals or humans. Using complex calculations, the software can suggest with a very high degree of probability the course of history of a particular group of living organisms. This includes identification of periods with mass extinction or mass population growth and information about contacts with other populations of the same species in the past. The scientists’ article about this methodology has been published in the journal Giga Science.
Scientists have carried out the first-ever analysis of the full genome of representatives of Russia’s various ethnic groups. Using specialized software, they traced the development history of several of these groups. In the future, the resulting data can be used in other valuable research, such as in identifying genetic risk factors in various populations of Russian people. The results of this study were published in Genomics.